Origins[ edit ] The first use of the term "coach" in connection with an instructor or trainer arose around in Oxford University slang for a tutor who "carried" a student through an exam.
Individuals with disabilities include those who have impairments that substantially limit a major life activity, have a record or history of a substantially limiting impairment, or are regarded as having a disability.
Section of the Rehabilitation Act provides similar protections related to federal employment. In addition, most states have their own laws prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of disability. Some of these state laws may apply to smaller employers and may provide protections in addition to those available under the ADA.
This document, which is one of a series of question-and-answer documents addressing particular disabilities in the workplace, 3 explains how the ADA applies to job applicants and employees with intellectual disabilities.
In particular, this document explains: They include communication, self care, home living, social skills, leisure, health and safety, self direction, functional academics reading, writing, basic mathand work.
Individuals with severe intellectual disabilities are more likely to have additional limitations than persons with milder intellectual disabilities. May an employer ask a job applicant whether she has an intellectual disability before making a job offer?
This means that an employer cannot legally ask an applicant questions such as: Of course, an employer may ask questions pertaining to the qualifications for, or performance of, the job, such as: May an employer ask any follow-up questions if it is obvious that an applicant has an intellectual disability or an applicant voluntarily reveals that she has an intellectual disability?
If it is obvious that an applicant has an intellectual disability or voluntarily tells an employer that she has an intellectual disability, and the employer reasonably believes that she will require an accommodation to perform the job, the employer may ask whether the applicant will need an accommodation and what type.
The employer must keep any information an applicant discloses about her medical condition confidential. See "Keeping Medical Information Confidential. An applicant for a position as an office clerk voluntarily discloses to the employer that she has an intellectual disability and sometimes needs to be reminded of her duties.
The employer may ask the applicant whether she needs a reasonable accommodation, such as a detailed checklist or the use of a computer with a touch screen that reads instructions out loud or has images to guide her through the steps in a task.
However, the employer may not ask whether she will need to take frequent leave because of her intellectual disability or whether her condition is genetic. After an employer has obtained basic medical information from all individuals who have received job offers, it may ask specific individuals for more medical information if it is medically related to the previously obtained medical information.
What may an employer do when it learns that an applicant has an intellectual disability after she has been offered a job but before she starts working? When an applicant discloses after receiving a conditional job offer that she has an intellectual disability, an employer may ask the applicant questions about the extent of her disability.
Permissible follow-up questions at this stage differ from those at the pre-offer stage when an employer only may ask an applicant who voluntarily discloses a disability whether she needs an accommodation to perform the job and what type.
An employer may not withdraw an offer from an applicant with an intellectual disability if the applicant is able to perform the essential functions of the job, with or without reasonable accommodation, without posing a direct threat that is, a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of himself or others that cannot be eliminated or reduced through reasonable accommodation.
A deli clerk who worked at a grocery chain for five years accepts an offer to be a deli clerk at a specialty market.
In response to a question on a post-offer medical history questionnaire, she discloses that she was diagnosed with an intellectual disability in first grade. When the store manager tells the applicant that her disability makes him concerned about her ability to use a meat slicer and other sharp utensils, the applicant explains that she was supervised closely when she first started working as a deli clerk and that she has worked five years without injuring herself.
Because there is no evidence that the applicant will pose a significant risk of substantial harm because of her intellectual disability, the employer may not withdraw the job offer. Once an employee is on the job, his actual performance is the best measure of ability to do the job.
When may an employer ask an employee whether her intellectual disability, or some other medical condition, may be causing her performance problems? At other times, an employer may ask for medical information when it has received reliable information from someone else for example, a family member or co-worker indicating that the employee may have a medical condition that is causing performance problems.
A mailroom clerk with an intellectual disability and attention deficit disorder who has performed his job successfully for five years starts to make mistakes in sorting and delivering letters and packages.Overview.
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