This paper examines the ethical failure of theodicies by integrating the perspectives of philosophical argumentation and literary reading and analysis. The paper consists of two main parts.
The morality of Realism is intrinsic, integral, relativistic - relations between people and society are explored. 4. The style of Realism is the vehicle which carries realistic philosophy, subject matter, and morality. In short the difference between secular and spiritual meditation is the difference between freeing the mind and freeing the heart. Many secular techniques for meditation are all about calming the mind. Spiritual seekers are going inside to find a great love, God, and are not afraid of the words or the experience. Realism in American Literature, For a much more extensive description than appears on this brief page, see the works listed in the realism bibliography and the .
Definitions Broadly defined as "the faithful representation of reality" or "verisimilitude," realism is a literary technique practiced by many schools of writing. Although strictly speaking, realism is a technique, it also denotes a particular kind of subject matter, especially the representation of middle-class life.
A reaction against romanticism, an interest in scientific method, the systematizing of the study of documentary history, and the influence of rational philosophy all affected the rise of realism. According to William Harmon and Hugh Holman, "Where romanticists transcend the immediate to find the ideal, and naturalists plumb the actual or superficial to find the scientific laws that control its actions, realists center their attention to a remarkable degree on the immediate, the here and now, the specific action, and the verifiable consequence" A Handbook to Literature Many critics have suggested that there is no clear distinction between realism and its related late nineteenth-century movement, naturalism.
Howells to London, the term "realism" is difficult to define, in part because it is used differently in European contexts than in American literature. Pizer suggests that "whatever was being produced in fiction during the s and s that was new, interesting, and roughly similar in a number of ways can be designated as realism, and that an equally new, interesting, and roughly similar body of writing produced at the turn of the century can be designated as naturalism" 5.
Put rather too simplistically, one rough distinction made by critics is that realism espousing a deterministic philosophy and focusing on the lower classes is considered naturalism. In American literature, the term "realism" encompasses the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells, Rebecca Harding Davis, Henry James, Mark Twain, and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts.
As the United States grew rapidly after the Civil War, the increasing rates of democracy and literacy, the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigration, and a relative rise in middle-class affluence provided a fertile literary environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts in culture.
In drawing attention to this connection, Amy Kaplan has called realism a "strategy for imagining and managing the threats of social change" Social Construction of American Realism ix.
Realism was a movement that encompassed the entire country, or at least the Midwest and South, although many of the writers and critics associated with realism notably W. Howells were based in New England.
Among the Midwestern writers considered realists would be Joseph Kirkland, E. Selective presentation of reality with an emphasis on verisimilitude, even at the expense of a well-made plot Character is more important than action and plot; complex ethical choices are often the subject.
Characters appear in their real complexity of temperament and motive; they are in explicable relation to nature, to each other, to their social class, to their own past. Class is important; the novel has traditionally served the interests and aspirations of an insurgent middle class. Realistic novels avoid the sensational, dramatic elements of naturalistic novels and romances.
Diction is natural vernacular, not heightened or poetic; tone may be comic, satiric, or matter-of-fact. Objectivity in presentation becomes increasingly important: Interior or psychological realism a variant form. In Black and White Strangers, Kenneth Warren suggests that a basic difference between realism and sentimentalism is that in realism, "the redemption of the individual lay within the social world," but in sentimental fiction, "the redemption of the social world lay with the individual" The realism of James and Twain was critically acclaimed in twentieth century; Howellsian realism fell into disfavor as part of early twentieth century rebellion against the "genteel tradition.In fact, life is the raw material by which literature communicates a writer's novel and unique experiences of life.
In this way, the link between literature and life is inseparable. Hence, treating literature as the world of idealists is the gross negation of this link. AREA STUDIES – AFRICA (Regional Sustainable Development Review) – Vol. II – Literature and Culture – The Sustainability Connection From an African Perspective - Charles Takoyoh Eyong, Millens Mufuaya and Irene Iwo Foy ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) 8.
Conclusion Acknowledgements Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary Since the late s, attempts have been made to .
Reading Capitalist Realism presents some of the latest and most sophisticated approaches to the question of the relation between capitalism and narrative form, partly by questioning how the “realism” of austerity, privatization, and wealth protection relate to the realism of narrative and cultural production.
Even as critics have sought to. Many scholars view this connection between the reader and character as a mark of realism. For example, Janet Todd writes that "Austen creates an illusion of realism in her texts, partly through readerly identification with the characters and partly through rounded characters, who have a .
Books shelved as social-realism: The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, Keep the Aspidistra Flying by George Orwell, Zappa by Bjarne Reuter, East of Eden.
Before turning to the novels, let us consider the notion of “cultural work” and how that concept relates to the young adult novel and to magical realism. I am using the term “cultural work” in the sense that Jane Tompkins uses it in her groundbreaking study Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction –