Adopted by the FDI General Assembly September, in Paris, France Revised October, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction Dental erosion is a multifactorial process leading to the loss of enamel and dentine, involving acid dissolution which is not related to the presence of bacteria, and may affect all age groups. It is becoming increasingly significant in the long-term management of the dentition. Sources of acid may be extrinsic predominantly dietary or intrinsic predominantly gastric.
In particular, the establishment and the skills of an Investment Promotion Agency, actively looking for investors in industries and activities for which the country has a competitive advantage and a strong need, can make the difference, both in quantity, quality and positive effects of FDI.
On a sub-national level, FDI usually concentrates in the richest part of the country, where wages are higher, also because there the investor can find a better infrastructure and easier logistical accessibility from abroad. This empirical evidence weakens the relationships between FDI and low wages.
In macroeconomic terms, net inflow of FDI often occurs when the country has a trade deficit.
Impact on other variables A. Financial variables The equity capital component of FDI generates an increase in "total equity" of the foreign economy. Note that the latter is not equal to total assets in the aggregated balance sheet.
As an inflow of capital it is, FDI changes the balance of payments. Other things equal, if not sterilized, FDI increases the official reserves of foreign currency.
External trade and industrial variables, including wages A particularly strong FDI concentrated in a short period of time e. If significant flows of FDI are aimed to real investments e. For both reasons, imports will rise after a FDI inflow. If the good produced in the host country is sold there, consumption composition will change, possibly with a loss in market shares of local producers and of foreing producers based abroad.
If the product is new for the host country, it fills a gap and increases the variety of available goods, thus opening the path to higher productivity for industrial users and higher satisfaction for consumers. For instance, a FDI in an electricity generation plant will allow more firms to operate in the region and wider availability of energy for inhabitants.
If, instead, the production is exported, FDI boosts exports of the host country, providing it with foreign currency. If FDI is targeted to green-field investment, employment will rise, possibly involving a Keynesian multiplier of income and consumption. If FDI is targeted to an acquisition of a large inefficient firm, the priority of profits will possibly lead, in the short run, to waves of dismissals and a rise of unemployment.
Wages are usually higher in foreign affiliates than in local firms, sometimes with the crowding out of the latter on the labour market i. Knowledge and entrepreneurial variables Usually, foreign firms have higher productivity than local ones, since the foreing ownership prompts managers to use non-locally available knowledge, both incorporated and not-incorporated in machines, which often constitute an innovation.
All this might generate knowledge spillovers to workers, as well as to local providers e. Thus, a mid-term effect of FDI can be the mushrooming of new businesses in the same industry by competitors and past key workers.
Political variables Far-sighted politicians can use FDI for their country to catch up with world standards in certain industries, prompting a fast development of the economy, by attracting and selecting the investors. However, large and concentrated FDI can exert external pressure to obtain a preferential treatment against the local firms, giving rise to political attrition between the two groups.
The external pressure can take the form of funds for electoral expenses of certain parties or of corruption of bureacrats and politicians, the more so the money at stake is huge in comparision with the typical wage of the officer.
Foreign-owned managers risk to exhibit a radical "ignorance of law", since the law is written in a not-known language and they have no experience with it.
In this case, the management behaves as it wants, leaving to lawyers and bribery the task to make the activity "compliant" with regulation. FDI in non-democratic countries can exploit the lack of free trade unions and active citizens to carry out activities banned in democratic countries.
Caveat All this can be the effect of FDI provided they are big with respect to the host economy. By contrast, for most countries and for most of their history, FDI stocks and flows are quite small and their positive or negative effects simply do not influence the aggregate, which is rather determined by other factors.Introduction.
The growth of international production is mainly driven by economic and technological forces. It is also driven by the ongoing liberalization of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and trade policies.
Don Anura Wickramasinghe (), Determinant of the Factors Affecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Flow to Sri Lanka and Its Impact on the Sri Lankan Economy (Master of Business Administration, Department of International Business Graduate School University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce).
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the financial investment giving rise and sustaining over time the investor's significant degree of influence on the management of the affiliate. speciﬁc factors seem so important that the results do not support the over- all conclusion that FDI induces substantial spillover effects for the entire economy.
Impact of Flow of FDI & FII on Indian Stock Market drafted to stimulate the flow of foreign capital in to India attractive destination for foreign investors. External factors such as global economic cues, FDI & FII, Exchange rate and Internal factors such as demand and supply, market cap, EPS.
Dental erosion is a multifactorial process leading to the loss of enamel and dentine, involving acid dissolution which is not related to the presence of bacteria, and may affect all age groups. It is becoming increasingly significant in the long-term management of the dentition.